What is the finest light gathering variable power rifle scope brand(s) for early and late opportunity shooting? Are the 30 MM scopes better than the 1?” Is there an actual scientific test/rating, other than exit pupil – objective lens size calculation, which quantifies light transmission intensity for the wide range of proprietary coatings and glass types, etc., that settles the issue?

My personal choice for rifle scopes are the Leupold Vari-X-III with the 30 MM tube and 50 mm aperture, in 4.5 x 14 while some scopes might be slightly brighter, none as reliable a zero as the Leupold. The scopes Leica had on the market a few years ago were made by Leupold. While Leica is about to be one of my sponsors, I have used their products for years and consider them to be the best all around optics.